Monday, August 24, 2020
Examination Of Memory Models Psychology Essay This task is going to look at the multi-store model Atkinson and shiffrins (1968) and levels of preparing Craik and Lockhart (1972) there is proof to help the two hypotheses and proof against. The paper will right off the bat portray the multi-store model with a few investigations including Baddeley (1966) Peterson and Peterson (1959) and afterward a concise depiction of the degrees of preparing model with Craik and Tulvings(1971) and Tyler et al (1979) concentrates at that point will end with an assessment of the two models The multi-store model was the primary hypothesis of its sort, it was made to consider the manner in which memory is prepared, and how we hold and store data and why some data remains with us for our entire life and other data is lost. Atkinson and Shiffrins (1968) accepted that when we take care of data it at that point goes into various stores and this decides if the data gets encoded into our drawn out memory or transient memory. (Grahame Hill 2001) So right off the bat when data goes into our tangible store (tactile store meaning anything we contact, see , smell or hear) we have two or three seconds to take care of the data on the off chance that not the data will be lost everlastingly but rather whenever took care of, at that point it will become encoded into our transient memory . Anyway in any event, when data is in our momentary memory on the off chance that its not practiced, at that point it can in any case be uprooted yet on the off chance that practice has occurred, at that point its bound to be put away in our drawn out memory The Baddeley( 1966 ) study bolsters the multi-store model, he set out to accomplish data on climate encoding in transient memory was acoustic or semantic. He gave his subjects a rundown of four letter words. The rundowns were acoustically comparable and unique and semantically comparable and disparate. He at that point read out the words multiple times, following the subjects was given a rundown containing all the words he had perused out yet out of order their assignment was to rework the words once more into the right request this was to test the transient memory His members that had been given acoustically comparable had most exceedingly awful review with just 10% of review of words being in the right request and the remainder of the rundowns got a 60% to 80% review so along these lines momentary memory has better acoustic encoding recollections. So this examination underpins the multi-store that we have a momentary memory store. By and large the result is that multi-store model is the essential clarification of memory and is exceptionally oversimplified and Baddeleys hypothesis propose that the momentary memory is increasingly unpredictable.( Barbara woods 2004) Peterson and Peterson (1959 ) is additionally another hypothesis that bolsters Atkinson and Shiffrins (1968 ) multi-store model with respect to momentary memory their trial tried the length of transient memory. They assembled various subjects and given them jabber trigrams ( ptr, rtw) they tried review following three second stretches and afterward tried review following eighteen second spans. This was to determine whether the data got encoded into their tactile store or transient memory.( wwwcom) Their finding was that the subjects got a more prominent review 90% on the three second span and just 2% on the eighteen second stretch. This demonstrated we have a poor recollections when we dont have a verbal practice which concurs with Atkinson and Shiffrins (1968 ) hypothesis that you need to practice data for it to be encoded into our memory stores Additionally there is Craik and Lockharts (1968) model that proposes that practice isn't the main type of memory and that its increasingly unpredictable so they considered the profundities of preparing. This demonstrated by and by that the multi store model was excessively shortsighted. (Richard gross and Geoff rolls 2003) The multi-store model clarification is essential and it just clarifies encoding, stockpiling and recovery. Its an extremely shortsighted hypothesis that different physiologists have explained on. Baddeleys ( 1966) hypothesis bolstered the multi-store model that we have two separate memory stores present moment and long haul. The multi-store model doesn't clarify why we can recollect data in our momentary memory that we have not practiced. Levels of handling Levels of handling was made as an elective that tested Atkinson and shiffrins multi-store model Craik and Lockhart (1971) contended that practice alone couldn't clarify how individuals put away data in their drawn out memory, so they set out to demonstrate that data is increasingly significant when its progressively important. Craik and Lockhart (1971) accepted that it was down to how an individual handled this data; the more profound it gets imbedded then progressively chance that it will get encoded into the drawn out memory and that they was three sorts of continuing Organization, Distinctiveness and elaboration. To demonstrate this they did an examination. (Richard gross and Geoff rolls 2003) Craik and Tulving(1971) assembled various subjects and demonstrated them a rundown of 5 letter things and afterward posed inquiries about the words. Questions was in three unique styles case rhyme and sentence questions, case question; would be is the word in capitals, rhyme question; does the word cap rhyme with the word and in conclusion sentence question; would the word cap fit into the sentence; the .. Is down the road. The subjects could just answer yes or no to the inquiries. Craik and Tulving (1971) at that point contemplated the discoveries, survey the appropriate responses that the subjects have given to discover which has the more noteworthy review so there for a more profound degree of handling (Grahame slope 2001) (Richard gross and Geoff Rolls 2003) Their discoveries was agreeable to sentence addresses which falls under semantic preparing with the subjects recollecting 70% of the words so semantic handling has a superior review at that point rhyme question which is phonemic preparing with the subjects recollecting 35% of the words for review and shallow preparing the least with just 15% of the words being reviewed. So shallow preparing takes less contemplating and therefore the data will be more averse to be put away in your drawn out memory. Phonemic the subjects needed to contemplate the appropriate response, so a portion of the data got in encoded and semantic was the best generally speaking because of the way that the subjects needed to think considerably more so the data got encoded further so had the best review. (Nicky Hayes and sue Orrel 193l) Their are different examinations that have been made that have concurred and couldn't help contradicting Craik Lockhart(1971) hypothesis that its everything down to the profundity of preparing to which you get review . a hypothesis that couldn't help contradicting the hypothesis was Tyler et al (1979) He did an exploratory examination which included re-arranged words. two sets. One troublesome model rtoodc and one simple model doctro. Presently if Craik and Lockharts hypothesis was to be legitimized the subjects ought to have thought of a similar outcome as its a similar word so the profundity of the encoding ought to be the equivalent, so review ought to be the equivalent. The subjects showed signs of improvement review with the harder re-arranged word which recommends that the additional time you pay and exertion will improve review. Levels of handling considers the impacts of preparing not simply practice and expounds on more profound preparing, association, peculiarity and elaboration. Levels of handling gives us approaches to improve memory discovering data that is particular. A contention against this hypothesis is who characterizes what profound preparing is? Furthermore if semantic preparing produces better review in this manner semantic handling must be more profound prompting better review so its a roundabout contention. Memory is an intricate framework with a tremendous measure of different clinicians undertaking studies to attempt to discover a knowledge into how we recollect data. The multi-store model even thou its a fundamental and oversimplified it was an incredible first endeavor at getting memory and gave future analysts some place to begin from. Atkinson and Shiffrins (1978) model doesn't clarify why some data needn't bother with practice yet at the same time gets encoded into our memory. Anyway in any event, when practice has occurred, its not in every case enough to move the data from present moment to long haul memory store. In spite of the fact that with levels of handling the model is increasingly enlightening and investigates the various kinds of preparing. Be that as it may, the model doesn't clarify why these various sorts of handling lead to more readily review. Craik and Lockharts (1972) hypothesis likewise expect that semantic handling is more profound then phonemic however there is no proof to demonstrate this. In this manner the two models have shortcomings and both have proof that supports and backs up the models. The multi-store model is continually going to be the fundamental hypothesis that different analysts expand on and subsequently this task is more for the multi-store model at that point levels of handling because of the way that there is more proof to help that there is diverse memory stores and that when we get data it at that point gets encoded and whenever practiced quite possibly the data will at that point be put away into our present moment or long haul memory store.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Presentation Rejection is one of the excruciating encounters an individual particularly at the pre-adult age needs to experience. Ordinarily at youthful stage, youngsters are thinking about themselves as well as growing socially and monetarily. Confidence is the significant property an adolescent may handily lose while developing up.Advertising We will compose a custom paper test on Getting cut-dismissed or not getting what you need explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More Personally, when I was in the fourth grade, my folks constrained me to join a close by live-in school however my first experience or relationship with the new understudies and instructors shaped and inspired me into where I am today. Other than being dismissed because of horrible scores, I was overweight and in this way I couldn't handily investigate the extracurricular exercises, which left me damaged and forlorn. Nonetheless, how the dismissal assembled my confidence, force and future remained my in quiry. A gathered research directed positioned my school the most exceedingly awful in the town. My dad selected to enlist me to better performing school when contrasted with my past one. Notwithstanding, I never realized my exchange would stamp the defining moment in my life. The new school had some splendid egotistical understudies generally from rich families whom educators, supported, yet additionally adulated. Then again, I was from a low standard school with a poor order of English and overweight when contrasted with my schoolmates. Physical instruction was one of the extracurricular exercises every understudy needed to take an interest. Additionally, the school organization presented another sporting event, aerobatic exhibition in which each understudy regardless of the size foreseen locks in. Despite the fact that I weighed around fifty kilograms at just nine years of age, I had the inclination to partake in the game. Besides, I was shorter than the remainder of the understu dies. In this way, I was effectively noticeable during the game. Sadly, the trapeze artistry educator despised me. Actually, she needed to reprove me all the time because of my poor coordination during the exercises. I needed to continue on in light of the fact that it was required for all understudies to take an interest in the game. It was on a Friday evening not surprisingly, and all the understudies from the primary evaluation to fifth needed to present to the school the tumbling to the including the instructors. Because of my apprehension, I missed my coordination. Accordingly, the educator obtusely considered me a Ã¢â¬Ëfat dumb pigÃ¢â¬â¢ for being both large and as the most exceedingly terrible entertainer in her group. Therefore, I needed to drop out of the game, as she taught me to make a few laps around the playing field regularly to empower me lose my weight. I obliged yet the most exceedingly awful was to come toward the finish of the term. I was the toward the end in my group upon the arrival of the assessment results, which was mortifying. The games teacher who was likewise my class courtesan transparently advised me to quit eating the school food since I was just becoming fatter and not performing great in class. Tears loaded up with dread and contempt streamed. I even mulled over on submitting suicide.Advertising Looking for article on sociologies? We should check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The conviction I was a disappointment, dumb and a blockhead: an understudy with failure to hold anything both in class and open air, persuaded me to begin another life. The primary activity I took actually was to begin eating beneficial to chop down my weight. Besides, I needed to acknowledge and value my body to chop down the mental injury I was experiencing. Then again, I understood my poor character with different understudies added to my poor class execution. Inexplicably, subsequent to originating from my school occasion, I was somewhat lean contrasted with the past term. The fundamental inspiration of changing my life was to embarrassed and refute the individuals particularly educators who saw me as a disappointment. To perform better, I distinctly watched the best understudies in my group. Their conduct, development and perusing strategies merited recognizing. I even shaped a tight bond with one of them. Moreover, I chose to stop the aerobatic exhibition class by faking disorder and focusing on my examinations. In the subsequent term, I performed better however not at the highest point of the class, this quickened my inspiration to turn into the best in my group. At long last, in the mid-term tests, I was among the best three understudies in my group. Amazingly, my class fancy woman changed my sitting position since she trusted I duplicated my tests from my work area mate. By and by, toward the finish of the term, I turned into the best understudy in my group and even won the kind ness of a portion of the educators. Other than being glad for my accomplishment, I was enchanted for refuting my class special lady. From that point forward, I have never thought back in accomplishing what my heart wants particularly scholarly insightful. Right now, I am a new alumni roused to accomplish the best throughout everyday life. In this way, dismissal is a hindrance or boundary that gives the desire to exceed expectations throughout everyday life. In this way, greatness is my pride. In rundown, each individual needs to confront dismissal in any event once in her life yet the manner in which the person handles the circumstance decides her future. In spite of the fact that I was poor in both class and extracurricular exercises, I wound up vanquishing my snags to turn into a brilliant, knowledgeable and a solid individual in my life.Advertising We will compose a custom exposition test on Getting cut-dismissed or not getting what you need explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11 /page Learn More This article on Getting cut-dismissed or not getting what you need was composed and presented by client Nora Ewing to help you with your own examinations. You are allowed to utilize it for research and reference purposes so as to compose your own paper; be that as it may, you should refer to it likewise. You can give your paper here.
Friday, July 17, 2020
The Concept of Jung's Collective Unconscious Explained Phobias Print Understanding the Collective Unconscious By Lisa Fritscher Lisa Fritscher is a freelance writer and editor with a deep interest in phobias and other mental health topics. Learn about our editorial policy Lisa Fritscher Updated on December 13, 2019 More in Phobias Causes Symptoms and Diagnosis Treatment Types The collective unconscious is a concept originally defined by psychoanalyst Carl Jung and is sometimes called the objective psyche. It refers to the idea that a segment of the deepest unconscious mind is genetically inherited and is not shaped by personal experience. According to Jungs teachings, the collective unconscious is common to all human beings and is responsible for a number of deep-seated beliefs and instincts, such as spirituality, sexual behavior, and life and death instincts. Carl Jung Born in Switzerland in 1875, Carl Jung founded the school of analytical psychology. He is responsible for proposing and developing the psychological concepts of collective unconscious and archetypes, along with introverted and extroverted personality. Jung worked with Sigmund Freud, another prominent early psychologist. In his early studies, Jungs work affirmed many of Freuds ideas. As time went on, the two split in their principles of psychology. Jung contested Freuds principles of psychoanalysis. A big difference between their explanations of the unconscious is that Freud believed that the unconscious was the product of personal experiences, while Jung believed that the unconscious was the product of collective experiences inherited in the genes. The Theory Jungs theory on the collective unconscious was that it is made up of a collection of knowledge and imagery that every person is born with and is shared by all human beings due to ancestral experience. Although individuals do not know what thoughts and images are in their collective unconscious, it is thought that in moments of crisis the psyche can tap into the collective unconscious. Instincts and Archetypes Jung believed that the collective unconscious is made up of instincts and archetypes, that manifest basic and fundamental pre-existing images, symbols or forms, which are repressed by the conscious mind. Humans may not consciously know of these archetypes, but they hold strong feelings about them. According to Jung, these mythological images or cultural symbols are not static or fixed; instead, many different archetypes may overlap or combine at any given time. His theory was that humans are unconsciously aware of the implications of these archetypes because they are inherited. Some examples of archetypes that Jung proposed include: The motherBirthDeathRebirthThe animaPowerThe heroThe child Jung considered the mother archetype to be the most important. He thought the archetype not only manifested in the literal form of personal mother, grandmother, stepmother, mother-in-law, or nurse but also in the figurative form of mothers, including: Mary, Mother of GodThe churchCountryThe earthThe woodsThe seaA gardenA plowed fieldA spring or a well Jung believed that the mother archetype could contain positive aspects, such as motherly love and warmth, or negative aspects such as the terrible mother or goddess of fate. Complex Beliefs Deep-seated beliefs regarding spirituality and religion are explained as partially due to the collective unconscious. Jung was convinced that the similarity and universality of world religions pointed to religion as a manifestation of the collective unconscious. Similarly, morals, ethics, and concepts of fairness or right and wrong could be explained in the same way, with the collective unconscious as partially responsible. Phobias Genetic memory may explain specific phobias, a fear of a specific object, or of certain situations. Sometimes a phobia of snakes (ophidiophobia) manifests in children even when there is no apparent traumatic origin for their fear. For example, a study found that one-third of British children are afraid of snakes at age six, even though its rare to encounter a snake in the British Isles.?? The children had never come in contact with a snake in a traumatic situation, but snakes still generated an anxious response. Jung used his theory of the collective unconscious to explain such fears and social phobias. Fear of the dark, loud sounds, bridges, or blood may all be rooted in this collective unconscious, which is proposed as an inherited genetic trait. Dreams Dreams were thought to provide key insight into the collective unconscious. Jung believed that many symbolic objects and symbols have a universal or uniform meaning in dreams due to the archetypes represented. However, unlike his contemporary Sigmund Freud, Jung believed that dreams are highly personal, and dream interpretation requires knowing a great deal about the individual dreamer. Freud, on the other hand, often suggested that specific symbols represent specific unconscious thoughts. More than just being repressed wishes, Jung believed that dreams compensate for parts of the psyche that are underdeveloped in our waking lives. This allowed for the study of dreams as an instrument for research, diagnosis, and treatment for psychological conditions and phobias. Is It a Scientific Theory? Historically, there has been some debate around whether the collective unconscious requires a literal or symbolic interpretation. In scientific circles, a literal interpretation of the collective unconscious is thought to be a pseudoscientific theory. This is because it is difficult to scientifically prove that images of mythology and other cultural symbols are inherited and present at birth. Instead, a symbolic interpretation of the collective unconscious is thought to have some scientific grounding because of the belief that all humans share certain behavioral dispositions. New Research Into the Role of Gut Bacteria The collective unconscious is currently being examined in a different light. Psychiatric research is now looking at the role of bacteria in the collective unconscious. Genes in gut bacteria outnumber the genes in the human body, and these bacteria may produce neuroactive compounds. Its thought by some researchers that these neuroactive compounds may be part of the collective unconscious which regulates human behavior.?? If so, studies of gut microbes may be a very important part of the psychiatric research of the future. Jungs Theory of Personality and Learning Styles
Thursday, May 21, 2020
A Small Place Part 3 Rhetorical Analysis A Small Place, a novel written by Jamaica Kincaid, is a story relating to the small country of Antigua and its dilemmas from Jamaica KincaidÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view. In this novel Kincaid is trying to inform her audience that Antigua is in a poor state due to British imperial, government corruption, and tourism. Kincaid exposes her audience to the effect of these very problems in Antigua by using persuasive visual language. In the third part of Jamaica KincaidÃ¢â¬â¢s A Small Place, Kincaid does an exceptional job in arguing that, her country Antigua has corrupt government officials due to British influence by appealing effectively to pathos, logos, and ethos. Antigua is a beautiful island in the Caribbean that got its name from Christopher Columbus in 1493 when he first visited the small 108 square mile island (Niddrie). Antigua was later colonized by England in 1632, and won its independence in 1981 (Niddrie). Antigua was originally a country that was planned as a slave-breeding colony, but never became one; the slaves who were imported came to live self-reliantly in their own community (Niddrie). After, Antigua gained its independence; it established a constitutional monarchy, where the British monarch is still head of state, represented by a governor general (Niddrie). Sadly, Antigua is an impoverished country that has a history of being a victim of British imperialism, government corruption, and tourism (Kincaid). Kincaid informs her audienceShow MoreRelatedRhetorical Analysis of ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Civil DisobedienceÃ¢â¬ 1570 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿AP Language Rhetorical Analysis of ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Civil DisobedienceÃ¢â¬ Directions: Read Ã¢â¬Å"Civil Disobedience.Ã¢â¬ As you read, underline examples of Thoreau using rhetorical devices and identify and explain the devices via annotation. Answer questions 1-4 to prepare for further work with a small group. The group will work together on questions 5 through 8. Be ready to explain your answers to the whole class. Even when youÃ¢â¬â¢re working as a group you should be writing the answers. 1. Based on yourRead MoreThe Agrarian Standard, By Wendell Berry1629 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdiscussing his belief in agrarianism throughout his 45-year literary career, through poems (Sabbaths- 1979, IV), speeches (Ã¢â¬Å"It All Turns On AffectionÃ¢â¬ ), and essays such as this one. In The Agrarian Standard, Mr. Berry utilizes several forms of rhetorical mode. He relies particularly heavy on Ethos by referencing popular, credible figures such as Virgil, Thomas Jefferson, Vandava Shiva, and others. One way he utilizes these popular figures in his argument is by including Ã¢â¬Å"VirgilÃ¢â¬â¢s Fourth GeorgicÃ¢â¬ Read MoreDescriptive and Inferential Statistics955 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDescriptive and Inferential Statistics Statistical methods in psychology have two main branches, which are descriptive and inferential. 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(a) Culture shock and cooperative conflict style (b) Rhetorical and behavioral (c) Dichotomous and recursion (d) Self-awareness and positive reinforcement 2) Beliefs that are so central to a cultural group that they are never questioned are known as: (a) True believers (b) Empowerment (c) Self awareness (d) Cultural values 3) Organizational communication exhibits two properties: (a) Organization and structured (b) PlanningRead MoreStylistic Analysis of ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s Inaugural Speech1786 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesStylistic Analysis of ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s Inaugural Speech Abstract Higher level English learners always pay attention to English public speech, especially those inaugural speeches. They take them as fine literary efforts and good analysis material. This paper tries to give an analysis of ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s inaugural speech from stylistic perspective, in order to help to better appreciate ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s presentation skills. Keywords: stylistics, syntactic, lexics, rhetoric Barack Hussein Obama was elected to be the forty-fourthRead MoreThe Outliers By Malcolm Gladwell2400 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pageshave left that element of logos out in his book. The author uses the data to his advantage to further the argument by supporting it with a claim. For instance, the author, after giving the data on birthdays, states Ã¢â¬Å"The small initial advantage that the child born in the early part of the year has over the child born at the end of the year persistsÃ¢â¬ (Gladwell 28). This shows that the author uses the data to draw a generalization in order to improve his argument. In Longman, this strategy is describedRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of On Compassion 1233 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRhetorical Analysis: Ã¢â¬ËOn CompassionÃ¢â¬â¢ People tend to brush off something or ignore something that we do not understand or like. Many Americans do this. So if most of America does this, then what gets done with that problem? Nothing! Barbara Lazear AscherÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËOn CompassionÃ¢â¬â¢ shows this to a new level. She shows us how the homeless is struggling and everyone turns their heads about it even though it is a big problem in New York City. AscherÃ¢â¬â¢s use of good logos, pathos, and ethos comes together to showRead MoreFantastic Beasts And Where Find Them Trailer1999 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesPotter announced that there will be a new series of films set several decades prior to the events of Harry Potter. The new film, Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them, had a lot of expectations to uphold. The purpose of this essay is to provide a rhetorical criticism of one of the trailers for Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them. First, I will report on the film trailer. Next, I will analyze the trailer s context rela tive to the communication model, visual appeal, color foundations, nonverbalRead MoreInterpretation of the Text13649 Words Ã |Ã 55 PagesG F I C T I O N MODULE 1 1.1. 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We propose a new typology that distinguishes nine types of visual rhetorical figures according to their degree of complexity and ambiguity
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Personal Finance The most important part of having any success in your financial security is to have a sound financial plan. This is the process of managing your money to achieve personal economic satisfaction (pg. 5). Throughout this course I have learned many strategies that I will be able to use to gain financial security. Reading these chapters has helped me to realize that I do not have a good grip on my finances. I hope to take what I have learned and be in a more secure financial state that will be beneficial to me as well as my family. Financial Goals The most attainable goal right now to me will be working on a few short term goals that I can remove within the next year (pg. 11). I think by focusing on a few debts that can be paid off in a yearÃ¢â¬â¢s time will allow me to focus on the bigger things that seem to be weighing me down financially. I think many people get burdened down with small bills because we see something and immediately think we have to have it. This has led to my situation of having small bills that I can actually get rid of and save that money for more important things. I think that working on these short term goals will lead me into taking that next step up to working on the intermediate goals. Intermediate goals have a time frame of two to five years (pg.11). These types of debt may take longer to pay off and may prove to be the real struggle. I think in my case it seems so far down the road that I will never reach that goal. I have taken what IShow MoreRelatedPersonal Statement : Personal Finance1607 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPersonal Finance Personal finance decision is a very important decision as it involves management of day-to-day finances of an individual or his family. Personal finance includes not only obtaining, budgeting, saving, and spending monetary resources over time but also taking into account various financial risks and future life events. 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To achieve this goal, you must first identify the financial goals and set priorities. Personal financial planning is the process through which individual manages their finances to achieve maximum satisfaction. It does not matter if you are self-employed, highly paid executive or newly employedRead MorePersonal Financial Planning1579 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages | | |2011-2012 Academic Year | ADM 3445 (FR01B) Personal Financial Planning Course Outline Instructor: E. Otuteye Term: Winter 2012 Office: SH 362 Day(s): W Phone: 506 458-7354 Time: 7:00-9:50pm Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Classroom: SH 161 Office hours: Th, F 2:00 Ã¢â¬â 3:00;
string(47) " to school and from school back to their home\." Bicol University College of Education Daraga, Albay Case Study: A Child with Learning Disability Presented to Professor Hennie Pama-Lomibao Associate Professor IV 2nd Sem. S. Y. We will write a custom essay sample on Bicol University College of Education Daraga Case Study or any similar topic only for you Order Now 2012-2013 Presented by: Rannel B. Buenabajo Carmen B. Barlizo Jessere T. Marco Primerose M. Arevalo Cindy R. Mangampo Introduction A learning disability is a neurological disorder. In simple terms, a learning disability results from a difference in the way a personÃ¢â¬â¢s brain is Ã¢â¬Å"wired. It also refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, mathematical and motor abilities. There is no one sign that shows a person has a learning disability. Experts look for a noticeable difference between how well a child does in school and how well he or she could do, given his or her intelligence or ability. There are also certain clues that may mean a child has a learning disability. Most of them relates to elementary school tasks, because learning disabilities tend to be identified in elementary school. However, if a child shows a number of these problems, then parents and the teacher should consider the possibility that the child has a learning disability. When a child has learning disability he or she may have trouble earning the alphabet, rhyming words, or connecting letters to their sounds, may make many mistakes when reading aloud, and repeat and pause often, may not understand what he or she reads, may have real trouble with spelling, may have very messy handwriting or hold a pencil awkwardly, may struggle to express ideas in writing, may learn language late and have a limited vocabulary, may have trouble remembering the sounds that letters make or hearing slight differences between words, may have trouble understanding jokes, comic strips, and sarcasm, may have trouble following directions, may mispronounce words or use a wrong word that sounds similar, may have trouble organizing what he or she wants to say or not be able to think of the word he or she needs for writing or conversation, may not follow the social rules of conversation, such as taking turns, and may stand too close to the listener, may confuse math symbols and misread numbers, may not be able to retell a story in order (what happened first, second, third), or may not know where to begin a task or how to go on from there. Difficulty with basic reading and language skills are the most common learning disabilities. As many as 80% of students with learning disabilities have reading problems, learning disabilities often run in families, learning disabilities should not be confused with other disabilities such as autism, intellectual disability, deafness, blindness, and behavioral disorders. None of these conditions are learning disabilities. In addition, they should not be confused with lack of educational opportunities like frequent changes of schools or attendance problems. There are different types of learning disabilities and they are classified to what particular disability. The most common types are Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, and Auditory and Visual Processing Disorders. The causes of Learning Disabilities are attributed to genetic, environmental factors and acquired trauma. The genetic factors refer to the characteristics that are inherited through the genes. Studies of identical or monozygotic twins, where one fertilized egg cell splits and develops into two separate embryos, show that when one twin has a reading disability, the other twin is more likely also to have a reading disability. Identical twins possess the same physical and mental traits. However, research shows that this is not true in the case of fraternal or dizygotic twins. Environmental influences refers to inadequate and poor learning environment that contribute significantly to the learning and behavior of many LD students (Gersten, Wood Ward and Darch, 1986, Wallace and Mclaughtin,1988). Acquired trauma is the injury to the central nervous system that originates outside the individuals result in learning disorders. 136, 525 with special need enrolled in school (2002-2003). (15. 19 %) were gifted and fast learners and 66, 635 (48. 81%) had disabilities. 75% Ã¢â¬â 80% of special education students identified as LD they have their basic deficits in language and reading; Source: National Institutes of Health. According to DepEd: learning disabilities affect 40,000 Filipino school children and the majority of these are boys. Motor Development In the first year of life, infants begin to gain control over movements. They begin to control their head movements, reach out and grasp objects, roll, sit, and crawl and hold cups or bottles to be able to eat. Then go on walking, running, climbing upstairs, using spoon and fork, and dressing themselves. Motor development only happens when the child is biologically and mentally ready for it. It progresses from gross motor skills to fine motor skills. Motor development progression start from top to the toe and from the center out. Ideally this means that head and shoulder movements should be practiced and mastered before hand and fine fingers movements attempted. Motor development patterns or task does not mean that it will improve or developed other motor skills. The motor skills of a child develop in their own pace, some develop in the early age, and others are delayed and have difficulties in controlling both their fine and gross motor skills. Children can do different activities. They are aware with their body, have muscle coordination, balance, manual dexterity and eye-hand coordination. Like them, Lyka can also do the same. She can perform some basic movements like moving from one place to another, walking, jumping, running, etc. She already knows how to write, grasp and hold objects. During the days of our home and school visit, we noticed how her muscle works, like when she holds and used her pencils, pen and crayons. She has a dominant right hand and properly holds her pencils with her thumb and two fingers. She writes properly using her pencil and crayons. She walks from home to school and from school back to their home. You read "Bicol University College of Education Daraga Case Study" in category "Essay examples" We observed how fast she runs up stairs, how she skips and stands with her tip toe, stand with one foot and stands on the table and chair. She can also dance gracefully. She donÃ¢â¬â¢t have problems in performing tasks especially with her hands; we saw how she use and holds some kitchen utensils like the plate, spoon and cup. She can also manipulate objects such as blocks and beads draw some pictures like flowers, ball, and basic shapes like circle, triangle, square, and rectangle. Lyka has a well fine motor skill that was shown in her hand written. Social and Emotional Development Many students with learning disabilities have social and emotional behaviour problems in addition to the usual difficulties in language, reading and mathematics. The student with social problems may be unable to behave appropriately with peers and in other social situation. Whereas social problems involved interaction with others, emotional problems are generally considered to be within the person. Problems in the social and emotional areas overlap in the learning disabled. For example the student with a poor self-concept may withdraw from social interaction with peers and adults. Although it is not always apparent whether social and emotional problems are contributing to the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s academic difficulties. These aspects of behaviour are usually counterproductive to learning and thus limit academic success. Moreover, learning disabilities cause the students to faced academic failure and frustration. However, in the case of Lyka these behaviours are not present. She is a very sociable girl and friendly; she always wears a smile on her face. She can handle her emotion. She will act what she feels. She expresses what she wants and what do not want so that she can be understood by others. For example; when she wants to buy food, she expresses it to her mother and beg for it until her mother buys it. She plays with her classmates, runs if they do, and laughs and mingles with them. She smiles often and share what she have like her toys, books, crayons and papers and even her snacks. She asks the help of her parents and sisters frequently where to find things when she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know like when she misplaced her things (pencil, eraser etc. ). She is aware of the good manners and right conduct. She uses respectful words especially if she is talking to the elder people like saying Ã¢â¬Å"po, opo, tabi, kuya and ateÃ¢â¬ she make Ã¢â¬Å"manoÃ¢â¬ in her grandmother, parents and other elder ones. She talks and answers politely. Sometimes when she is having a conversation with one of our group mates (NEL), the attentiveness and the activeness can be seen and the word Ã¢â¬Å"kuyaÃ¢â¬ is not forgotten. Onetime when we are asked by her parent to attend to her elder sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s birthday celebration, we see how Lyka entertains her sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s visitors without any sign of shyness. She took pictures of her sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s classmates using the camera and the cell phone. She wants to make her sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s visitors feel at home. It seems that she donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel any embarrassment in front of the unfamiliar faces,. She acts like thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no other person in their house. She has the initiative to help her mother in some household chores that is easy for her to do like sweeping the floor, washing the dishes and picking up used papers and trash that were scattered. In fact at school we saw her arranging the chairs and sweeping the floor. She obeys when she is asked by her mother to do something like taking care of their sari-sari store. Cognitive and Language Development Hallaghen, Kauffman and Lloyd (1985) LD have more difficulty in memory processes than their handicapped peer. The memory problems of the learning disabled are attributed to the limited use of cognitive strategies (organization, rehearsal) that handicapped learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ strategies; their performance is similar to that of non handicapped peers. Tongesen and Kail (1980) add that LD students may have difficulty remembering because of their poor language skills. Thus verbal material may be particularly difficult to remember. 50 % of LD individuals have language and speech problems (Marge, 1972), which may account for the increasing interest in language disorders (Wiig and Semels, 1984). Language and speech difficulties reflect deficient skills in oral expression and listening comprehension. Because language skills and academic functioning are closely related, confusion exists concerning the diagnostic and instructional roles of language clinicians and LD specialist. Just like Lyka who frequently exhibits memory difficulties. She seems to know something one day but forgets it the next day. Ã¢â¬Å"She doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to remember what she learns. Just like our names, at first sheÃ¢â¬â¢ll remember it but forget it in the following day. A seven-year-old child should have mastered the consonants s-z, r, voiceless th, ch, wh, and the soft g as in George. Should handle opposite analogies easily: girl-boy, man-woman, flies-swims, blunt-sharp short-long, sweet-sour, etc. Understand such terms as: alike, different, beginning, end, etc. Should be able to do simple reading and to write or print many words. However, Lyka, who is a seven year old, cannot properly pronounce letters such as R, K, th and ch. According to her teacher, Lyka has difficulty in reading. She only pretends to read during oral reading. Her teacher added that she only reads through her lips imitating the sound she heard from her classmates. She is confused to pronounce letters B and D, P and T. She mispronounces letters D, B, K, T, and P. Sometimes she pronounced D as B and B as D. She can only pronounce common words such as mama and papa, during mother tongue lessons; she can recognize also letters and pronounce it correctly such as M, S, H and O. Lyka cannot identify rhyming words yet she can identify beginning sounds of common words like ma, pa, ate. She cannot even divide words into syllables. Even when there are giving syllables to form a word she cannot do it. She is unable to spell words correctly. She speaks in incomplete sentences like, Ã¢â¬Å"punta ka bahay? Ã¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"san kuya Narrel? Ã¢â¬ and one time when we visit in their house she said that Ã¢â¬Å"Ate punta kayu amin, kayu sundo amin. Ã¢â¬ Lyka can easily recognize numbers and count as well. She can compare numbers and find which figure has greater amount. She can draw shapes but unable to determine its name except triangle and square. She is inattentive and keeps on looking around during storytelling. When the story tellers ask questions, she can answer the questions but in incomplete sentence. Sometimes she is unable to answer because she cannot recall the information. She cannot answer questions that require higher order thinking skills. But she can follow oral instruction like when we ask her to raise her hands if she wants to answer. Personal and Self-help Development Ã¢â¬Å"Personality develops based on his extensive experience in psychotherapy with children and adolescents from low, upper, and middle-class backgroundsÃ¢â¬ Erik Erikson once said. Personality is what makes a person a unique individual, and it is recognizable soon after birth. The personality of a person is might be influence by his peers, his environment and through her socialization and interaction with others. Children have different personality from each other. They might be similar in some ways but there is a big difference when we get to know it. Lyka can easily adjust to her surroundings and even there are new unfamiliar faces. Lyka is not so timid but not so interactive as well. But she can do things without being bothered by the new faces around her. When we gave her a set of crayons and coloring book, she excitedly colored the book. However, you can see that she canÃ¢â¬â¢t decide alone to what color she will use. She frequently asked us if what color she should use to ensure that she will not commit mistake. There is a time when we see her helping her classmates in cleaning the room. She goes to school early, she do her home works and she follows the school and class rules. After using her thing she fixed it with her own, like when she got bored in coloring her book, she clean up her mess and fixed her things then put it in the proper place. Lyka can take care of herself; she can take a bath and prepare herself to school. But because of the distance of their home from the school, their mother ensures her safety so she always goes with Lyka to the school and fetches her after class. According to Lyka she can do her projects with her own but there was a time that she asked her parents to help her especially if she find it hard to do. When we visit Lyka at the school, teacher Aileen shows us some of her projects. Some of them are authentically made by her but there is one project that LykaÃ¢â¬â¢s mother made, a valentine decor that was hang near the bulletin board. Lyka is not aware of healthy food in fact, when we go with Ate Aida to fetch her we saw that she buys junk food in the store without thinking the risk she will get from it. But Lyka is concern to her personal hygiene. Every time she feels that sheÃ¢â¬â¢s already stinky and dirty, she changes up her dress. Lyka is aware that she might get hit by the passing automobile thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why she ensures that she tightly holds the hand of her mother when they cross the street. Teacher Conference According to her teacher (Teacher Aileen L. Conda) Lyka has an unusual short attention span and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like reading. She cannot easily catch up to the lesson that is why she needs more time for her to absorb the lesson. During reading activity Lyka pretends to read though she canÃ¢â¬â¢t. She just read through her lips and after a while, she will stop and just stares at the words flashing in front of her and do nothing. After that her eyes will start to look around. Teacher Aileen added that this particular behavior of Lyka occurs when it is reading period and the subject allows her to read sentences/short stories. This behavior lasts mostly 15 minutes. She denotes that this particular behavior is not a very serious case. If she will just pay attention and tried harder, she could read but she chooses not to do it. The said behaviors least likely occur when the subject is interesting especially if it is Math. According to Teacher Aileen also, Lyka find reading difficult so who ever teach her to read Lyka really find it hard for her to learn. When series of words have been flashing in front of her, she becomes confused and find it difficult to blend the sounds and read it as a word. Her difficulty in reading obviously seen every time the class start to read and she just stop reading and her eyes will start to wonder. Teacher Aileen also included that one time, after the class have finished reading, she call LykaÃ¢â¬â¢s attention and asked her why she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t read, she will not response and her eyes avoid to look at her directions. LykaÃ¢â¬â¢s body becomes stiff and sometimes when she asked Lyka to stand because she will teach it to read, she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t get any response and sometimes she pout and cries. Lyka can write even long sentences but the problem is she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t able to read what she have wrote. She find it hard to recognized rhyming words. Teacher Aileen suggested that both the regular and SPEd teacher in cooperation with the parents can create an intervention plan tailored to her specific needs. Parent Conference As we talk to LykaÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, Mrs. Aida, she told us that when she read to her daughter Lyka she notice that Lyka is easily get bored especially when the words are repeatedly told. Lyka will said, Ã¢â¬Å"paulit-ulit na lang! Ã¢â¬ Lyka become inattentive if she is exposed to many words when her mother tries to teach her. When she read to Lyka using the MTB (Mother Tongue Based) Manual, Lyka found it hard to read. She cannot read if LykaÃ¢â¬â¢s mother did not first pronounce the words. She did not recognize simple words like Ã¢â¬Å"basoÃ¢â¬ and unable to read and pronounce simple syllable. When she tried to read to Lyka one syllable like Ã¢â¬Å"sa,se,si,so,suÃ¢â¬ she can say it but later on as she introduce another set of syllables she did not recognize the first syllable anymore. She can only read syllables or words if her mother read with her and she found it difficult if she reads with her own. There are omitted letters on her writings. LykaÃ¢â¬â¢s mother told us that she is sociable; she does not choose whom to play with. Mrs. Aida point out that when LykaÃ¢â¬â¢s playmate hit her, she will hit back that particular child. LykaÃ¢â¬â¢s mother added that every time her things are being used without her permission she pout and put back again her things in order. Because of the busy schedule of LykaÃ¢â¬â¢s father we didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a chance to talk with her, but according to Mrs. Aida he helps her daughter to do her home works like when there are activities concerns to drawing. But he never had a chance to teach his daughter to read because of his works. Mrs. Aida added that Lyka is an obedient child; she listens if she told to, she obeys whatever her mother asks her. Mrs. Aida is concern to her child. She wants that Lyka to learn to read. She teaches Lyka to read if she has a time, but Lyka is very inattentive. She is easily disturbed especially if there are children playing in their house. Conclusions Based from the gathered data, the researchers find out the following conclusions: Ã¢â¬ ¢Lyka can do mathematical problems. She is able to add and subtract simple equation. Also, she can count numbers from 1-30 consistently. Ã¢â¬ ¢In terms of her social and emotional concerns, she is ociable and can handle her feelings, often play with her classmates and friends. She laughs with them, interacts with them and shares food to them. She talks much and says whatever she wanted. She behaves well at school. She remains seated during class discussion. She follows c lassroom rules and regulations. Ã¢â¬ ¢She has a short attention span. She got easily bored when doing something. Sometimes she was distracted that is why she canÃ¢â¬â¢t finish specific tasks. Ã¢â¬ ¢She has well fine motor skills. She holds pencil and crayons properly and writes neatly. She can draw basic shapes and simple objects but unable to name some. She can do gross motor skills such as walking running, jumping, skipping and balancing. She can also dance and move her body. Ã¢â¬ ¢She speaks with omitted words in the sentence. She finds it hard to remember and therefore produce correct sounds of letters/ words. She has trouble learning the alphabet that is why she has trouble understanding written words. She frequently mispronounces words. Ã¢â¬ ¢She has difficulty in reading. Yes, she can write letters and words but unable to pronounce and name it. She canÃ¢â¬â¢t remember long sentences and oftentimes forget what she has learned like our names. Ã¢â¬ ¢She listens but most of the time becomes inattentive. Her focus shifted to something that catches her attention. She cannot focus on one specific task. She might have difficulty in reasoning because she cannot be able to express her ideas example based from the story heard. She cannot answer questions that require higher order thinking skills. Ã¢â¬Å" Learning disability is a disorder that is manifested by significance difficulties in the acquisition and use of list ening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning and mathematical abilities( Hammill, Leigh, Mcnutt and Larser, 1981)Ã¢â¬ However, based from the above conclusions, we found out that in the case of lyka, she has only learning disability in some areas; her reading, speaking and listening skills and probably to have problems in reasoning skill. Problems in Reading are manifested in a variety of ways. It could be word recognition errors (omission, insertion, etc. , reading habits (tension, movements, etc. ) and comprehension errors. She often omits words, only when she was and sometimes in writing. Lyka, during reading period start to wander and stare only at the words and she cannot even recall some facts from story heard. Torgesen and Kail (1980) denotes that learning disabled children /students may have difficulty remembering because of their poor language skills. Thus, verbal material may be particularly difficult to remember. Speaking is present to LykaÃ¢â¬â¢s disability. This is manifested in her verbal communication. She speaks in incomplete sentences. Thus, she frequently omits words when talking. Marge (1972) accounts that learning disabled individuals have language and speech disorders which lead to an increasing interest in language disorders (Wiig and Semels, 1984). Language and speech difficulties reflect deficient skills in oral expression and listening comprehension. In LykaÃ¢â¬â¢s case, she reflects deficient skills in oral expression and listening comprehension. She is able to communicate orally but language lack in pragmatic competence. The structures on sentences are incorrect and often mispronounce uttered words. She has difficulty in her listening comprehension. Fleisher, Soodak and Selin (1984) reported that attention deficits have much fact validity; teacher can readily recall students with learning disability who had difficulty paying attention. LykaÃ¢â¬â¢s attention is short that is why she has problems in listening comprehension and she does not able to absorb information due to inattentiveness. Lyka might probably have difficulty in reasoning skills. Ã¢â¬Å"Many students with learning disabilities have weaknesses in abstract reasoning and can benefit from direct instruction in problem-solving skills. They may also benefit from language therapy to help them learn to use language to understand and solve problemsÃ¢â¬ (Article of Ann Logsdon). Lyka canÃ¢â¬â¢t answer questions that require higher order thinking skills. The manifestation of learning disability in writing and mathematics are not present to Lyka. Actually she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have difficulty in writing and mathematics. She can write her name, short or long sentences neatly and can solve simple mathematical problems like basic addition and subtraction. Thus, she has learning disability in reading, speaking and listening skills. Interventions to learning disabled children Multi sensory approach referred to as VAKT (visual, auditory, kinesthetic and tactile) learning is facilitated for some students if information received through several senses rather than just one or two senses. Fernald Method stresses whole word learning. To provide an independent study method for students who have extreme difficulty retaining sight words and their spelling. This procedure may be integrated into other reading/spelling methods for students who do not seem to be able to re-visualize words for writing or who do not retain the association between printed words and their spoken equivalents. Gillingham-Stillman (1966) Method, feature sound blending, the process of teaching isolated sound and blending them into a word. Language Program and Materials Clinical Language Intervention Program (Semel and Wiig, 1982), used to teaches semantics, syntax, memory, and pragmatics to students. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s Talk: Developing Pro-social Communication Skills (Wiig 1982), develop and strengthen the pro social communication skills of students. Direct remediation (Auditory Training), Auditory training that targets bottom-up activities that maximize neuroplasticity and can be formal (i. e. , in a sound-treated booth with acoustically controlled stimuli) or informal (in home or school setting using targeted games and activities). References Books Ã¢â¬Å"Bangs, Tina E. Ã¢â¬Å"Language and Learning Disorder of the Pre-academic Child with curriculum guideÃ¢â¬ New Jersey:Prentice Hall Inc. , 1982 Harring, Norris G. Ã¢â¬Å"Exceptional Children and youthÃ¢â¬ (5th Edition) Ohio: Merrill Publishing Company, 1990 Stanley Johnson W, Robert L. Morasky Ã¢â¬Å"learning DisabilitiesÃ¢â¬ (Second Edition) Boston Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon Inc. , 1980 Inciong, Teresita G. , Yolanda S. Quijano, Yolanda T. Capulong, Julieta A. Gregorio, Adelaida C. Gines. Introduction To special EducationÃ¢â¬ Philippines: Rex Book Store Inc. 2007 Electronic media http://www. angelfire. com/folk/personalitydev http://www. bhcmhmr. org/poc/view_doc. php? type=docid=12757cn=462 http://www. ldhope. com/statistics. html www. Interaksyon. com/article/33676/no-such-thing-as-bobo http://childdevelopmentinfo. com/child-development/language_development. shtml http://www. jstor. org/discover/pgs/index? id=10. 2307/1169734img=dtc. 22. tif. gifuid=3738824uid=2uid=4sid=21101780942871orig=/discover/10. 2307/1169734? uid=3738824uid=2uid=4sid=21101780942871 http://www. ehow. com/about_5530836_meaning-cognitive-disorder. html Documentation How to cite Bicol University College of Education Daraga Case Study, Free Case study samples
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Jack Kerouac And The Beat Movement ?World War II marked a wide dividing line between the old and the new in American society and the nation's literature?(The World Book Encyclopedia 427) . When world War II ended there was a pent up desire that had been postponed due to the war. Post war America brought about a time when it seemed that every young man was doing the same thing, getting a job, settling down and starting a family. America was becoming a nation of consumers. One group that was against conforming to this dull American lifestyle was referred to as ?Beatniks'. ?The Beats or Beatniks condemned middle class American life as morally bankrupt. They praised individualism as the highest human goal?(The World Book Encyclopedia 428). This perspective was present in poetry and literature through out the beat movement. One of the most important works produced during the beat movement was Jack Kerouac's On The Road. In the novel Jack Kerouac's alter ego Sal Paradise represents the American man who realizes he doesn't want to conform to societies pressures but still hasn't realized what it is exactly he wants to do. He is a man who has very little direction and is very much lost in the world as he knows it. Kerouac seems to be constantly trying to escape. In examining the novel one might wonder what is Kerouac escaping and by what means does he do so? Kerouac used two means of escape through out the novel and through out his life. His first means of escape was his constant travel. He traveled from east to west, New York to San Francisco and stopped everywhere in between. He made this trip over and over, constantly on the road. The simple title of the novel exemplifies Kerouac's ongoing need to travel. When he and his friends got tried of traveling east to west they traveled north to south, driving all the way down to Mexico City. His travels gave him the opportunity to be an outsider with no worries. He was able to witness and observe all that there was to offer throughout the country. While journeying across the states, staying in small towns for no more than a few nights, Kerouac was able to obtain a life with no commitment or responsibility. Even if he was to make some sort of commitment to one of his many girls along the way, it wasn't unlike him to just pick up and leave. After all the only thing people around seemed to know about him was that he liked to drink. This leads to the other form of escape Kerouac used, the alteration of reality. Kerouac would mentally alter his perception of reality through the use of drugs and alcohol. ?I was getting drunk and didn't care; everything was fine?(Kerouac 35). To him everything in life was fine as long as he was drunk. ?He was beginning to drink heavily, and to drink whiskey and gin instead of just beer ?(Nicosia 96). ?That was only the beginning of his disillusionment. Jack began taking benzedrine and smoking marijuana?(Nicosia 102). Having the means by which he escapes, the question still remains what is Kerouac trying to escape? In order to understand this we must explore some of Jack's personal issues. A issue concerning Kerouac that is very often eluded to but never really spoken about in On The Road is his possible homosexuality. While Jack never actually ?came out' about his sexuality, his close friends would often witness ?Jack's participation in endless rounds of sex with both men and women?(Nicosia 102). Kerouac's homosexual tendencies caused an overriding psychological conflict: Kerouac was gay but despised homosexuals. ?Jack talked incessantly about all the ?big old fags' he knew?(Nicosia 493). Even though Kerouac would have homosexual encounters, he felt a private guilt over his homosexual feelings. In an attempt to ease his guilt Jack would denounce homosexuality, saying that ?gay sex is not in my line?(Nicosia 142). Jack was obviously ashamed of his homosexual experiences and ?fought all his life against the label queer?(Nicosia 154). In 1945, he wrote a letter to Allen Ginsberg trying to resolve the issue of his possible homosexuality. He stated that ?the physical