Friday, July 17, 2020

The Concept of Jungs Collective Unconscious Explained

The Concept of Jung's Collective Unconscious Explained Phobias Print Understanding the Collective Unconscious By Lisa Fritscher Lisa Fritscher is a freelance writer and editor with a deep interest in phobias and other mental health topics. Learn about our editorial policy Lisa Fritscher Updated on December 13, 2019 More in Phobias Causes Symptoms and Diagnosis Treatment Types The collective unconscious is a concept originally defined by psychoanalyst Carl Jung and is sometimes called the objective psyche. It refers to the idea that a segment of the deepest unconscious mind is genetically inherited and is not shaped by personal experience. According to Jungs teachings, the collective unconscious is common to all human beings and is responsible for a number of deep-seated beliefs and instincts, such as spirituality, sexual behavior, and life and death instincts. Carl Jung Born in Switzerland in 1875, Carl Jung founded the school of analytical psychology. He is responsible for proposing and developing the psychological concepts of collective unconscious and archetypes, along with introverted and extroverted personality. Jung worked with Sigmund Freud, another prominent early psychologist. In his early studies, Jungs work affirmed many of Freuds ideas. As time went on, the two split in their principles of psychology. Jung contested Freuds principles of psychoanalysis. A big difference between their explanations of the unconscious is that Freud believed that the unconscious was the product of personal experiences, while Jung believed that the unconscious was the product of collective experiences inherited in the genes. The Theory Jungs theory on the collective unconscious was that it is made up of a collection of knowledge and imagery that every person is born with and is shared by all human beings due to ancestral  experience. Although individuals do not know what thoughts and images are in their collective unconscious, it is thought that in moments of crisis the psyche can tap into the collective unconscious. Instincts and Archetypes Jung believed that the collective unconscious is made up of instincts and archetypes, that manifest basic and fundamental pre-existing images, symbols or forms, which are repressed by the conscious mind. Humans may not consciously know of these archetypes, but they hold strong feelings about them. According to Jung, these mythological images or cultural symbols are not static or fixed; instead, many different archetypes may overlap or combine at any given time.   His theory was that humans are unconsciously aware of the implications of these archetypes because they are inherited. Some examples of archetypes that Jung proposed include: The  motherBirthDeathRebirthThe animaPowerThe heroThe child Jung considered the mother archetype to be the most important. He thought the archetype not only manifested in the literal form of personal mother, grandmother, stepmother, mother-in-law, or nurse but also in the figurative form of mothers, including: Mary, Mother of GodThe churchCountryThe earthThe woodsThe seaA gardenA plowed fieldA spring or a well Jung believed that the mother archetype could contain positive aspects, such as motherly love and warmth, or negative aspects such as the terrible mother or goddess of fate. Complex Beliefs Deep-seated beliefs regarding spirituality and religion are explained as partially due to the collective unconscious. Jung was convinced that the similarity and universality of world religions pointed to religion as a manifestation of the collective unconscious.   Similarly, morals, ethics, and concepts of fairness or right and wrong could be explained in the same way, with the collective unconscious as partially responsible. Phobias Genetic memory may explain specific phobias, a fear of a specific object, or of certain situations. Sometimes a phobia of snakes (ophidiophobia) manifests in children even when there is no apparent traumatic origin for their fear. For example, a study found that one-third of British children are afraid of snakes at age six, even though its rare to encounter a snake in the British Isles.?? The children had never come in contact with a snake in a traumatic situation, but snakes still generated an anxious response. Jung used his theory of the collective unconscious to explain such fears and social phobias. Fear of the dark, loud sounds, bridges, or blood may all be rooted in this collective unconscious, which is proposed as an inherited genetic trait. Dreams Dreams were thought to provide key insight into the collective unconscious. Jung believed that many symbolic objects and symbols have a universal or uniform meaning in dreams due to the archetypes represented. However, unlike his contemporary Sigmund Freud, Jung believed that dreams are highly personal, and dream interpretation requires knowing a great deal about the individual dreamer. Freud, on the other hand, often suggested that specific symbols represent specific unconscious thoughts. More than just being repressed wishes, Jung believed that dreams compensate for parts of the psyche that are underdeveloped in our waking lives. This allowed for the study of dreams as an instrument for research, diagnosis, and treatment for psychological conditions and phobias. Is It a Scientific Theory? Historically, there has been some debate around whether the collective unconscious requires a literal or symbolic interpretation. In scientific circles, a literal interpretation of the collective unconscious is thought to be a pseudoscientific theory. This is because it is difficult to scientifically prove that images of mythology and other cultural symbols are inherited and present at birth. Instead, a symbolic interpretation of the collective unconscious is thought to have some scientific grounding because of the belief that all humans share certain behavioral dispositions. New Research Into the Role of Gut Bacteria The collective unconscious is currently being examined in a different light. Psychiatric research is now looking at the role of bacteria in the collective unconscious. Genes in gut bacteria outnumber the genes in the human body, and these bacteria may produce neuroactive compounds. Its thought by some researchers that these neuroactive compounds may be part of the collective unconscious which regulates human behavior.?? If so, studies of gut microbes may be a very important part of the psychiatric research of the future. Jungs Theory of Personality and Learning Styles

Thursday, May 21, 2020

A Small Place Part 3 Rhetorical Analysis - 1373 Words

A Small Place Part 3 Rhetorical Analysis A Small Place, a novel written by Jamaica Kincaid, is a story relating to the small country of Antigua and its dilemmas from Jamaica Kincaid’s point of view. In this novel Kincaid is trying to inform her audience that Antigua is in a poor state due to British imperial, government corruption, and tourism. Kincaid exposes her audience to the effect of these very problems in Antigua by using persuasive visual language. In the third part of Jamaica Kincaid’s A Small Place, Kincaid does an exceptional job in arguing that, her country Antigua has corrupt government officials due to British influence by appealing effectively to pathos, logos, and ethos. Antigua is a beautiful island in the Caribbean that got its name from Christopher Columbus in 1493 when he first visited the small 108 square mile island (Niddrie). Antigua was later colonized by England in 1632, and won its independence in 1981 (Niddrie). Antigua was originally a country that was planned as a slave-breeding colony, but never became one; the slaves who were imported came to live self-reliantly in their own community (Niddrie). After, Antigua gained its independence; it established a constitutional monarchy, where the British monarch is still head of state, represented by a governor general (Niddrie). Sadly, Antigua is an impoverished country that has a history of being a victim of British imperialism, government corruption, and tourism (Kincaid). Kincaid informs her audienceShow MoreRelatedRhetorical Analysis of Thoreau’s â€Å"Civil Disobedience†1570 Words   |  7 Pagesï » ¿AP Language Rhetorical Analysis of Thoreau’s â€Å"Civil Disobedience† Directions: Read â€Å"Civil Disobedience.† As you read, underline examples of Thoreau using rhetorical devices and identify and explain the devices via annotation. Answer questions 1-4 to prepare for further work with a small group. The group will work together on questions 5 through 8. Be ready to explain your answers to the whole class. Even when you’re working as a group you should be writing the answers. 1. Based on yourRead MoreThe Agrarian Standard, By Wendell Berry1629 Words   |  7 Pagesdiscussing his belief in agrarianism throughout his 45-year literary career, through poems (Sabbaths- 1979, IV), speeches (â€Å"It All Turns On Affection†), and essays such as this one. In The Agrarian Standard, Mr. Berry utilizes several forms of rhetorical mode. He relies particularly heavy on Ethos by referencing popular, credible figures such as Virgil, Thomas Jefferson, Vandava Shiva, and others. One way he utilizes these popular figures in his argument is by including â€Å"Virgil’s Fourth Georgic†Read MoreDescriptive and Inferential Statistics955 Words   |  4 PagesDescriptive and Inferential Statistics Statistical methods in psychology have two main branches, which are descriptive and inferential. 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We propose a new typology that distinguishes nine types of visual rhetorical figures according to their degree of complexity and ambiguity

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Personal Statement Personal Finance - 1534 Words

Personal Finance The most important part of having any success in your financial security is to have a sound financial plan. This is the process of managing your money to achieve personal economic satisfaction (pg. 5). Throughout this course I have learned many strategies that I will be able to use to gain financial security. Reading these chapters has helped me to realize that I do not have a good grip on my finances. I hope to take what I have learned and be in a more secure financial state that will be beneficial to me as well as my family. Financial Goals The most attainable goal right now to me will be working on a few short term goals that I can remove within the next year (pg. 11). I think by focusing on a few debts that can be paid off in a year’s time will allow me to focus on the bigger things that seem to be weighing me down financially. I think many people get burdened down with small bills because we see something and immediately think we have to have it. 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Bicol University College of Education Daraga Case Study Free Essays

string(47) " to school and from school back to their home\." Bicol University College of Education Daraga, Albay Case Study: A Child with Learning Disability Presented to Professor Hennie Pama-Lomibao Associate Professor IV 2nd Sem. S. Y. We will write a custom essay sample on Bicol University College of Education Daraga Case Study or any similar topic only for you Order Now 2012-2013 Presented by: Rannel B. Buenabajo Carmen B. Barlizo Jessere T. Marco Primerose M. Arevalo Cindy R. Mangampo Introduction A learning disability is a neurological disorder. In simple terms, a learning disability results from a difference in the way a person’s brain is â€Å"wired. It also refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, mathematical and motor abilities. There is no one sign that shows a person has a learning disability. Experts look for a noticeable difference between how well a child does in school and how well he or she could do, given his or her intelligence or ability. There are also certain clues that may mean a child has a learning disability. Most of them relates to elementary school tasks, because learning disabilities tend to be identified in elementary school. However, if a child shows a number of these problems, then parents and the teacher should consider the possibility that the child has a learning disability. When a child has learning disability he or she may have trouble earning the alphabet, rhyming words, or connecting letters to their sounds, may make many mistakes when reading aloud, and repeat and pause often, may not understand what he or she reads, may have real trouble with spelling, may have very messy handwriting or hold a pencil awkwardly, may struggle to express ideas in writing, may learn language late and have a limited vocabulary, may have trouble remembering the sounds that letters make or hearing slight differences between words, may have trouble understanding jokes, comic strips, and sarcasm, may have trouble following directions, may mispronounce words or use a wrong word that sounds similar, may have trouble organizing what he or she wants to say or not be able to think of the word he or she needs for writing or conversation, may not follow the social rules of conversation, such as taking turns, and may stand too close to the listener, may confuse math symbols and misread numbers, may not be able to retell a story in order (what happened first, second, third), or may not know where to begin a task or how to go on from there. Difficulty with basic reading and language skills are the most common learning disabilities. As many as 80% of students with learning disabilities have reading problems, learning disabilities often run in families, learning disabilities should not be confused with other disabilities such as autism, intellectual disability, deafness, blindness, and behavioral disorders. None of these conditions are learning disabilities. In addition, they should not be confused with lack of educational opportunities like frequent changes of schools or attendance problems. There are different types of learning disabilities and they are classified to what particular disability. The most common types are Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, and Auditory and Visual Processing Disorders. The causes of Learning Disabilities are attributed to genetic, environmental factors and acquired trauma. The genetic factors refer to the characteristics that are inherited through the genes. Studies of identical or monozygotic twins, where one fertilized egg cell splits and develops into two separate embryos, show that when one twin has a reading disability, the other twin is more likely also to have a reading disability. Identical twins possess the same physical and mental traits. However, research shows that this is not true in the case of fraternal or dizygotic twins. Environmental influences refers to inadequate and poor learning environment that contribute significantly to the learning and behavior of many LD students (Gersten, Wood Ward and Darch, 1986, Wallace and Mclaughtin,1988). Acquired trauma is the injury to the central nervous system that originates outside the individuals result in learning disorders. 136, 525 with special need enrolled in school (2002-2003). (15. 19 %) were gifted and fast learners and 66, 635 (48. 81%) had disabilities. 75% – 80% of special education students identified as LD they have their basic deficits in language and reading; Source: National Institutes of Health. According to DepEd: learning disabilities affect 40,000 Filipino school children and the majority of these are boys. Motor Development In the first year of life, infants begin to gain control over movements. They begin to control their head movements, reach out and grasp objects, roll, sit, and crawl and hold cups or bottles to be able to eat. Then go on walking, running, climbing upstairs, using spoon and fork, and dressing themselves. Motor development only happens when the child is biologically and mentally ready for it. It progresses from gross motor skills to fine motor skills. Motor development progression start from top to the toe and from the center out. Ideally this means that head and shoulder movements should be practiced and mastered before hand and fine fingers movements attempted. Motor development patterns or task does not mean that it will improve or developed other motor skills. The motor skills of a child develop in their own pace, some develop in the early age, and others are delayed and have difficulties in controlling both their fine and gross motor skills. Children can do different activities. They are aware with their body, have muscle coordination, balance, manual dexterity and eye-hand coordination. Like them, Lyka can also do the same. She can perform some basic movements like moving from one place to another, walking, jumping, running, etc. She already knows how to write, grasp and hold objects. During the days of our home and school visit, we noticed how her muscle works, like when she holds and used her pencils, pen and crayons. She has a dominant right hand and properly holds her pencils with her thumb and two fingers. She writes properly using her pencil and crayons. She walks from home to school and from school back to their home. You read "Bicol University College of Education Daraga Case Study" in category "Essay examples" We observed how fast she runs up stairs, how she skips and stands with her tip toe, stand with one foot and stands on the table and chair. She can also dance gracefully. She don’t have problems in performing tasks especially with her hands; we saw how she use and holds some kitchen utensils like the plate, spoon and cup. She can also manipulate objects such as blocks and beads draw some pictures like flowers, ball, and basic shapes like circle, triangle, square, and rectangle. Lyka has a well fine motor skill that was shown in her hand written. Social and Emotional Development Many students with learning disabilities have social and emotional behaviour problems in addition to the usual difficulties in language, reading and mathematics. The student with social problems may be unable to behave appropriately with peers and in other social situation. Whereas social problems involved interaction with others, emotional problems are generally considered to be within the person. Problems in the social and emotional areas overlap in the learning disabled. For example the student with a poor self-concept may withdraw from social interaction with peers and adults. Although it is not always apparent whether social and emotional problems are contributing to the student’s academic difficulties. These aspects of behaviour are usually counterproductive to learning and thus limit academic success. Moreover, learning disabilities cause the students to faced academic failure and frustration. However, in the case of Lyka these behaviours are not present. She is a very sociable girl and friendly; she always wears a smile on her face. She can handle her emotion. She will act what she feels. She expresses what she wants and what do not want so that she can be understood by others. For example; when she wants to buy food, she expresses it to her mother and beg for it until her mother buys it. She plays with her classmates, runs if they do, and laughs and mingles with them. She smiles often and share what she have like her toys, books, crayons and papers and even her snacks. She asks the help of her parents and sisters frequently where to find things when she doesn’t know like when she misplaced her things (pencil, eraser etc. ). She is aware of the good manners and right conduct. She uses respectful words especially if she is talking to the elder people like saying â€Å"po, opo, tabi, kuya and ate† she make â€Å"mano† in her grandmother, parents and other elder ones. She talks and answers politely. Sometimes when she is having a conversation with one of our group mates (NEL), the attentiveness and the activeness can be seen and the word â€Å"kuya† is not forgotten. Onetime when we are asked by her parent to attend to her elder sister’s birthday celebration, we see how Lyka entertains her sister’s visitors without any sign of shyness. She took pictures of her sister’s classmates using the camera and the cell phone. She wants to make her sister’s visitors feel at home. It seems that she don’t feel any embarrassment in front of the unfamiliar faces,. She acts like there’s no other person in their house. She has the initiative to help her mother in some household chores that is easy for her to do like sweeping the floor, washing the dishes and picking up used papers and trash that were scattered. In fact at school we saw her arranging the chairs and sweeping the floor. She obeys when she is asked by her mother to do something like taking care of their sari-sari store. Cognitive and Language Development Hallaghen, Kauffman and Lloyd (1985) LD have more difficulty in memory processes than their handicapped peer. The memory problems of the learning disabled are attributed to the limited use of cognitive strategies (organization, rehearsal) that handicapped learners’ strategies; their performance is similar to that of non handicapped peers. Tongesen and Kail (1980) add that LD students may have difficulty remembering because of their poor language skills. Thus verbal material may be particularly difficult to remember. 50 % of LD individuals have language and speech problems (Marge, 1972), which may account for the increasing interest in language disorders (Wiig and Semels, 1984). Language and speech difficulties reflect deficient skills in oral expression and listening comprehension. Because language skills and academic functioning are closely related, confusion exists concerning the diagnostic and instructional roles of language clinicians and LD specialist. Just like Lyka who frequently exhibits memory difficulties. She seems to know something one day but forgets it the next day. â€Å"She doesn’t seem to remember what she learns. Just like our names, at first she’ll remember it but forget it in the following day. A seven-year-old child should have mastered the consonants s-z, r, voiceless th, ch, wh, and the soft g as in George. Should handle opposite analogies easily: girl-boy, man-woman, flies-swims, blunt-sharp short-long, sweet-sour, etc. Understand such terms as: alike, different, beginning, end, etc. Should be able to do simple reading and to write or print many words. However, Lyka, who is a seven year old, cannot properly pronounce letters such as R, K, th and ch. According to her teacher, Lyka has difficulty in reading. She only pretends to read during oral reading. Her teacher added that she only reads through her lips imitating the sound she heard from her classmates. She is confused to pronounce letters B and D, P and T. She mispronounces letters D, B, K, T, and P. Sometimes she pronounced D as B and B as D. She can only pronounce common words such as mama and papa, during mother tongue lessons; she can recognize also letters and pronounce it correctly such as M, S, H and O. Lyka cannot identify rhyming words yet she can identify beginning sounds of common words like ma, pa, ate. She cannot even divide words into syllables. Even when there are giving syllables to form a word she cannot do it. She is unable to spell words correctly. She speaks in incomplete sentences like, â€Å"punta ka bahay? †, â€Å"san kuya Narrel? † and one time when we visit in their house she said that â€Å"Ate punta kayu amin, kayu sundo amin. † Lyka can easily recognize numbers and count as well. She can compare numbers and find which figure has greater amount. She can draw shapes but unable to determine its name except triangle and square. She is inattentive and keeps on looking around during storytelling. When the story tellers ask questions, she can answer the questions but in incomplete sentence. Sometimes she is unable to answer because she cannot recall the information. She cannot answer questions that require higher order thinking skills. But she can follow oral instruction like when we ask her to raise her hands if she wants to answer. Personal and Self-help Development â€Å"Personality develops based on his extensive experience in psychotherapy with children and adolescents from low, upper, and middle-class backgrounds† Erik Erikson once said. Personality is what makes a person a unique individual, and it is recognizable soon after birth. The personality of a person is might be influence by his peers, his environment and through her socialization and interaction with others. Children have different personality from each other. They might be similar in some ways but there is a big difference when we get to know it. Lyka can easily adjust to her surroundings and even there are new unfamiliar faces. Lyka is not so timid but not so interactive as well. But she can do things without being bothered by the new faces around her. When we gave her a set of crayons and coloring book, she excitedly colored the book. However, you can see that she can’t decide alone to what color she will use. She frequently asked us if what color she should use to ensure that she will not commit mistake. There is a time when we see her helping her classmates in cleaning the room. She goes to school early, she do her home works and she follows the school and class rules. After using her thing she fixed it with her own, like when she got bored in coloring her book, she clean up her mess and fixed her things then put it in the proper place. Lyka can take care of herself; she can take a bath and prepare herself to school. But because of the distance of their home from the school, their mother ensures her safety so she always goes with Lyka to the school and fetches her after class. According to Lyka she can do her projects with her own but there was a time that she asked her parents to help her especially if she find it hard to do. When we visit Lyka at the school, teacher Aileen shows us some of her projects. Some of them are authentically made by her but there is one project that Lyka’s mother made, a valentine decor that was hang near the bulletin board. Lyka is not aware of healthy food in fact, when we go with Ate Aida to fetch her we saw that she buys junk food in the store without thinking the risk she will get from it. But Lyka is concern to her personal hygiene. Every time she feels that she’s already stinky and dirty, she changes up her dress. Lyka is aware that she might get hit by the passing automobile that’s why she ensures that she tightly holds the hand of her mother when they cross the street. Teacher Conference According to her teacher (Teacher Aileen L. Conda) Lyka has an unusual short attention span and doesn’t like reading. She cannot easily catch up to the lesson that is why she needs more time for her to absorb the lesson. During reading activity Lyka pretends to read though she can’t. She just read through her lips and after a while, she will stop and just stares at the words flashing in front of her and do nothing. After that her eyes will start to look around. Teacher Aileen added that this particular behavior of Lyka occurs when it is reading period and the subject allows her to read sentences/short stories. This behavior lasts mostly 15 minutes. She denotes that this particular behavior is not a very serious case. If she will just pay attention and tried harder, she could read but she chooses not to do it. The said behaviors least likely occur when the subject is interesting especially if it is Math. According to Teacher Aileen also, Lyka find reading difficult so who ever teach her to read Lyka really find it hard for her to learn. When series of words have been flashing in front of her, she becomes confused and find it difficult to blend the sounds and read it as a word. Her difficulty in reading obviously seen every time the class start to read and she just stop reading and her eyes will start to wonder. Teacher Aileen also included that one time, after the class have finished reading, she call Lyka’s attention and asked her why she didn’t read, she will not response and her eyes avoid to look at her directions. Lyka’s body becomes stiff and sometimes when she asked Lyka to stand because she will teach it to read, she doesn’t get any response and sometimes she pout and cries. Lyka can write even long sentences but the problem is she doesn’t able to read what she have wrote. She find it hard to recognized rhyming words. Teacher Aileen suggested that both the regular and SPEd teacher in cooperation with the parents can create an intervention plan tailored to her specific needs. Parent Conference As we talk to Lyka’s mother, Mrs. Aida, she told us that when she read to her daughter Lyka she notice that Lyka is easily get bored especially when the words are repeatedly told. Lyka will said, â€Å"paulit-ulit na lang! † Lyka become inattentive if she is exposed to many words when her mother tries to teach her. When she read to Lyka using the MTB (Mother Tongue Based) Manual, Lyka found it hard to read. She cannot read if Lyka’s mother did not first pronounce the words. She did not recognize simple words like â€Å"baso† and unable to read and pronounce simple syllable. When she tried to read to Lyka one syllable like â€Å"sa,se,si,so,su† she can say it but later on as she introduce another set of syllables she did not recognize the first syllable anymore. She can only read syllables or words if her mother read with her and she found it difficult if she reads with her own. There are omitted letters on her writings. Lyka’s mother told us that she is sociable; she does not choose whom to play with. Mrs. Aida point out that when Lyka’s playmate hit her, she will hit back that particular child. Lyka’s mother added that every time her things are being used without her permission she pout and put back again her things in order. Because of the busy schedule of Lyka’s father we didn’t have a chance to talk with her, but according to Mrs. Aida he helps her daughter to do her home works like when there are activities concerns to drawing. But he never had a chance to teach his daughter to read because of his works. Mrs. Aida added that Lyka is an obedient child; she listens if she told to, she obeys whatever her mother asks her. Mrs. Aida is concern to her child. She wants that Lyka to learn to read. She teaches Lyka to read if she has a time, but Lyka is very inattentive. She is easily disturbed especially if there are children playing in their house. Conclusions Based from the gathered data, the researchers find out the following conclusions: †¢Lyka can do mathematical problems. She is able to add and subtract simple equation. Also, she can count numbers from 1-30 consistently. †¢In terms of her social and emotional concerns, she is ociable and can handle her feelings, often play with her classmates and friends. She laughs with them, interacts with them and shares food to them. She talks much and says whatever she wanted. She behaves well at school. She remains seated during class discussion. She follows c lassroom rules and regulations. †¢She has a short attention span. She got easily bored when doing something. Sometimes she was distracted that is why she can’t finish specific tasks. †¢She has well fine motor skills. She holds pencil and crayons properly and writes neatly. She can draw basic shapes and simple objects but unable to name some. She can do gross motor skills such as walking running, jumping, skipping and balancing. She can also dance and move her body. †¢She speaks with omitted words in the sentence. She finds it hard to remember and therefore produce correct sounds of letters/ words. She has trouble learning the alphabet that is why she has trouble understanding written words. She frequently mispronounces words. †¢She has difficulty in reading. Yes, she can write letters and words but unable to pronounce and name it. She can’t remember long sentences and oftentimes forget what she has learned like our names. †¢She listens but most of the time becomes inattentive. Her focus shifted to something that catches her attention. She cannot focus on one specific task. She might have difficulty in reasoning because she cannot be able to express her ideas example based from the story heard. She cannot answer questions that require higher order thinking skills. â€Å" Learning disability is a disorder that is manifested by significance difficulties in the acquisition and use of list ening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning and mathematical abilities( Hammill, Leigh, Mcnutt and Larser, 1981)† However, based from the above conclusions, we found out that in the case of lyka, she has only learning disability in some areas; her reading, speaking and listening skills and probably to have problems in reasoning skill. Problems in Reading are manifested in a variety of ways. It could be word recognition errors (omission, insertion, etc. , reading habits (tension, movements, etc. ) and comprehension errors. She often omits words, only when she was and sometimes in writing. Lyka, during reading period start to wander and stare only at the words and she cannot even recall some facts from story heard. Torgesen and Kail (1980) denotes that learning disabled children /students may have difficulty remembering because of their poor language skills. Thus, verbal material may be particularly difficult to remember. Speaking is present to Lyka’s disability. This is manifested in her verbal communication. She speaks in incomplete sentences. Thus, she frequently omits words when talking. Marge (1972) accounts that learning disabled individuals have language and speech disorders which lead to an increasing interest in language disorders (Wiig and Semels, 1984). Language and speech difficulties reflect deficient skills in oral expression and listening comprehension. In Lyka’s case, she reflects deficient skills in oral expression and listening comprehension. She is able to communicate orally but language lack in pragmatic competence. The structures on sentences are incorrect and often mispronounce uttered words. She has difficulty in her listening comprehension. Fleisher, Soodak and Selin (1984) reported that attention deficits have much fact validity; teacher can readily recall students with learning disability who had difficulty paying attention. Lyka’s attention is short that is why she has problems in listening comprehension and she does not able to absorb information due to inattentiveness. Lyka might probably have difficulty in reasoning skills. â€Å"Many students with learning disabilities have weaknesses in abstract reasoning and can benefit from direct instruction in problem-solving skills. They may also benefit from language therapy to help them learn to use language to understand and solve problems† (Article of Ann Logsdon). Lyka can’t answer questions that require higher order thinking skills. The manifestation of learning disability in writing and mathematics are not present to Lyka. Actually she doesn’t have difficulty in writing and mathematics. She can write her name, short or long sentences neatly and can solve simple mathematical problems like basic addition and subtraction. Thus, she has learning disability in reading, speaking and listening skills. Interventions to learning disabled children Multi sensory approach referred to as VAKT (visual, auditory, kinesthetic and tactile) learning is facilitated for some students if information received through several senses rather than just one or two senses. Fernald Method stresses whole word learning. To provide an independent study method for students who have extreme difficulty retaining sight words and their spelling. This procedure may be integrated into other reading/spelling methods for students who do not seem to be able to re-visualize words for writing or who do not retain the association between printed words and their spoken equivalents. Gillingham-Stillman (1966) Method, feature sound blending, the process of teaching isolated sound and blending them into a word. Language Program and Materials Clinical Language Intervention Program (Semel and Wiig, 1982), used to teaches semantics, syntax, memory, and pragmatics to students. Let’s Talk: Developing Pro-social Communication Skills (Wiig 1982), develop and strengthen the pro social communication skills of students. Direct remediation (Auditory Training), Auditory training that targets bottom-up activities that maximize neuroplasticity and can be formal (i. e. , in a sound-treated booth with acoustically controlled stimuli) or informal (in home or school setting using targeted games and activities). References Books â€Å"Bangs, Tina E. â€Å"Language and Learning Disorder of the Pre-academic Child with curriculum guide†New Jersey:Prentice Hall Inc. , 1982 Harring, Norris G. â€Å"Exceptional Children and youth† (5th Edition) Ohio: Merrill Publishing Company, 1990 Stanley Johnson W, Robert L. Morasky â€Å"learning Disabilities† (Second Edition) Boston Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon Inc. , 1980 Inciong, Teresita G. , Yolanda S. Quijano, Yolanda T. Capulong, Julieta A. Gregorio, Adelaida C. Gines. Introduction To special Education†Philippines: Rex Book Store Inc. 2007 Electronic media http://www. angelfire. com/folk/personalitydev http://www. bhcmhmr. org/poc/view_doc. php? type=docid=12757cn=462 http://www. ldhope. com/statistics. html www. Interaksyon. com/article/33676/no-such-thing-as-bobo http://childdevelopmentinfo. com/child-development/language_development. shtml http://www. jstor. org/discover/pgs/index? id=10. 2307/1169734img=dtc. 22. tif. gifuid=3738824uid=2uid=4sid=21101780942871orig=/discover/10. 2307/1169734? uid=3738824uid=2uid=4sid=21101780942871 http://www. ehow. com/about_5530836_meaning-cognitive-disorder. html Documentation How to cite Bicol University College of Education Daraga Case Study, Free Case study samples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Jack Kerouac And The Beat Movement Essays - , Term Papers

Jack Kerouac And The Beat Movement ?World War II marked a wide dividing line between the old and the new in American society and the nation's literature?(The World Book Encyclopedia 427) . When world War II ended there was a pent up desire that had been postponed due to the war. Post war America brought about a time when it seemed that every young man was doing the same thing, getting a job, settling down and starting a family. America was becoming a nation of consumers. One group that was against conforming to this dull American lifestyle was referred to as ?Beatniks'. ?The Beats or Beatniks condemned middle class American life as morally bankrupt. They praised individualism as the highest human goal?(The World Book Encyclopedia 428). This perspective was present in poetry and literature through out the beat movement. One of the most important works produced during the beat movement was Jack Kerouac's On The Road. In the novel Jack Kerouac's alter ego Sal Paradise represents the American man who realizes he doesn't want to conform to societies pressures but still hasn't realized what it is exactly he wants to do. He is a man who has very little direction and is very much lost in the world as he knows it. Kerouac seems to be constantly trying to escape. In examining the novel one might wonder what is Kerouac escaping and by what means does he do so? Kerouac used two means of escape through out the novel and through out his life. His first means of escape was his constant travel. He traveled from east to west, New York to San Francisco and stopped everywhere in between. He made this trip over and over, constantly on the road. The simple title of the novel exemplifies Kerouac's ongoing need to travel. When he and his friends got tried of traveling east to west they traveled north to south, driving all the way down to Mexico City. His travels gave him the opportunity to be an outsider with no worries. He was able to witness and observe all that there was to offer throughout the country. While journeying across the states, staying in small towns for no more than a few nights, Kerouac was able to obtain a life with no commitment or responsibility. Even if he was to make some sort of commitment to one of his many girls along the way, it wasn't unlike him to just pick up and leave. After all the only thing people around seemed to know about him was that he liked to drink. This leads to the other form of escape Kerouac used, the alteration of reality. Kerouac would mentally alter his perception of reality through the use of drugs and alcohol. ?I was getting drunk and didn't care; everything was fine?(Kerouac 35). To him everything in life was fine as long as he was drunk. ?He was beginning to drink heavily, and to drink whiskey and gin instead of just beer ?(Nicosia 96). ?That was only the beginning of his disillusionment. Jack began taking benzedrine and smoking marijuana?(Nicosia 102). Having the means by which he escapes, the question still remains what is Kerouac trying to escape? In order to understand this we must explore some of Jack's personal issues. A issue concerning Kerouac that is very often eluded to but never really spoken about in On The Road is his possible homosexuality. While Jack never actually ?came out' about his sexuality, his close friends would often witness ?Jack's participation in endless rounds of sex with both men and women?(Nicosia 102). Kerouac's homosexual tendencies caused an overriding psychological conflict: Kerouac was gay but despised homosexuals. ?Jack talked incessantly about all the ?big old fags' he knew?(Nicosia 493). Even though Kerouac would have homosexual encounters, he felt a private guilt over his homosexual feelings. In an attempt to ease his guilt Jack would denounce homosexuality, saying that ?gay sex is not in my line?(Nicosia 142). Jack was obviously ashamed of his homosexual experiences and ?fought all his life against the label queer?(Nicosia 154). In 1945, he wrote a letter to Allen Ginsberg trying to resolve the issue of his possible homosexuality. He stated that ?the physical

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Saul Alinsky

Saul Alinsky Saul Alinsky was a political activist and organizer whose work on behalf of poor residents of American cities brought him recognition in the 1960s. He published a book, Rules For Radicals, which appeared in the heated political environment of 1971  and went on to become familiar over the years mostly to those who study political science. Alinsky, who died in 1972, was perhaps destined to fade into obscurity. Yet his name unexpectedly surfaced  with some degree of prominence during high-profile political campaigns in recent years. Alinskys  reputed influence as an organizer has been wielded as a weapon against current political figures, most notably Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton. Alinsky was known to many  in the 1960s. In 1966 the New York Times Magazine published a profile of him titled Making Trouble Is Alinskys Business, a lofty credential for any social activist at the time. And his involvement in various actions, including strikes and protests, received media coverage. Hillary Clinton, as a student at Wellesley College, wrote a senior thesis about Alinskys activism and writings. When she ran for president in 2016 she was attacked for supposedly being a disciple of Alinsky, despite having disagreed with some of the tactics he advocated. Despite the negative attention Alinsky has received in recent years, he was generally respected in his own time. He worked with clergymen and business owners and in his writings and speeches, he stressed self-reliance. Though a self-proclaimed radical, Alinsky  considered himself a patriot and urged Americans to take greater responsibility in society. Those who worked with him recall a man with a sharp mind and a sense of humor who was genuinely concerned with helping those who, he believed, were not being treated fairly in society. Early Life Saul David Alinsky was born in Chicago, Illinois, on January 30, 1909. His parents, who were Russian Jewish immigrants, divorced when he was 13, and Alinsky moved to Los Angeles with his father. He returned to Chicago to attend the University of Chicago, and received a degree in archaeology in 1930. After winning a fellowship to continue his education, Alinsky studied criminology. In 1931, he began to work for the Illinois state government as a sociologist studying topics including juvenile delinquency and organized crime. That work provided a practical education in the problems of urban neighborhoods in the depths of the Great Depression. Activism After several years, Alinsky left his government post to become involved in citizen activism. He co-founded an organization, the Back of the Yards Neighborhood Council, which was focused on bringing about political reform that would improve life in the ethnically diverse neighborhoods adjacent to the famous Chicago stockyards. The organization worked with clergy members, union officials, local business owners, and neighborhood groups to combat problems such as unemployment, insufficient housing, and juvenile delinquency. The Back of the Yards Neighborhood Council, which still exists today, was largely successful in bringing attention to local problems and seeking solutions from the Chicago city government. Following that progress, Alinsky, with funding from the Marshall  Field Foundation, a prominent Chicago charity, launched a more ambitious organization, the Industrial Areas Foundation. The new organization was intended to bring organized action to a variety of neighborhoods in Chicago. Alinsky, as executive director, urged citizens to organize to address grievances. And he advocated protest actions. In 1946, Alinsky published his first book Reveille For Radicals. He argued that democracy would function best if people organized in groups, generally in their own neighborhoods. With organization and leadership, they could then exert political power in positive ways. Though Alinsky proudly used the term radical, he was advocating legal protest within the existing system. In the late 1940s, Chicago experienced racial tensions, as African Americans who had migrated from the South began to settle in the city. In December 1946 Alinskys status as an expert on Chicagos social issues was reflected in an article in the New York Times in which he expressed his fears that Chicago might erupt in major race riots. In 1949 Alinsky published a second book, a biography of John L. Lewis, a prominent labor leader. In a New York Times review of the book, the newspapers labor correspondent called it entertaining and lively, but criticized it for overstating Lewiss desire to challenge Congress and various presidents.   Spreading His Ideas Throughout the 1950s, Alinsky continued his work in trying to improve neighborhoods which he believed mainstream society was ignoring. He began to travel beyond Chicago, spreading his style of advocacy, which centered on protest actions which would pressure, or embarrass, governments to tend to critical issues. As the social changes of the 1960s began to shake America, Alinsky was often critical of young activists. He constantly urged them to organize, telling them that although it was often boring daily work, it would provide benefits in the long run. He told young people not to wait around for a leader with charisma to emerge, but to get involved themselves. As the United States grappled with the problems of poverty and slum neighborhoods, Alinskys ideas seemed to hold promise. He was invited to organize in the barrios of California as well as in poor neighborhoods in cities in upstate New York. Alinsky was often critical of government anti-poverty programs and often found himself at odds with Great Society programs of Lyndon Johnsons administration. He also experienced conflicts with organizations who had invited him to participate in their own anti-poverty programs. In 1965, Alinskys abrasive nature was one of the reasons Syracuse University chose to cut ties with him. In a newspaper interview at the time, Alinsky said: Ive never treated anyone with reverence. That goes for religious leaders, mayors, and millionaires. I think irreverence is basic to a free society. The New York Times Magazine article about him, published on October 10, 1966, quoted what Alinsky would often say to those he sought to organize: The only way to upset the power structure is to goad them, confuse them, irritate them, and most of all, make them live by their own rules. If you make them live by their own rules, youll destroy them. The October 1966 article also described his tactics: In a quarter-century as a professional slum organizer, Alinsky, who is 57, has goaded, confused, and infuriated the power structures of two score communities. In the process he has perfected what social scientists now call Alinsky-type protest, an explosive mixture of rigid discipline, brilliant showmanship, and a street fighters instinct for ruthlessly exploiting his enemys weakness.Alinsky has proved that the fastest way for slum tenants to get results is to picket their landlords suburban homes with signs reading: Your Neighbor Is A Slumlord. As the 1960s went on, Alinskys tactics delivered mixed results, and some localities which had invited were disappointed. In 1971 he published Rules For Radicals, his third and final book. In it, he provides advice for political action and organizing. The book is written in his distinctively irreverent voice, and is filled with entertaining stories that illustrate the lessons he learned over decades of organizing in various communities. On June 12, 1972, Alinsky  died of a heart attack at his home in Carmel, California. Obituaries noted his long career as an organizer. Emergence as a Political Weapon After Alinskys death, some organizations he worked with continued. And Rules For Radicals  became something of a textbook for those interested in community organizing. Alinsky himself, however, generally faded from memory, especially when compared to other figures Americans recalled from the socially turbulent 1960s. The relative obscurity of Alinsky abruptly  ended when Hillary Clinton entered electoral politics. When her opponents discovered that she had written her thesis on Alinsky, they became eager to link her to the long-dead self-professed radical. It was true that Clinton, as a college student, had corresponded with Alinsky, and had written a thesis about his work (which purportedly disagreed with his tactics). At one point, a young Hillary Clinton was even invited to work for Alinsky. But she tended to believe that his tactics were too outside the system, and she chose to attend law school rather than join one of his organizations. The weaponizing of Alinskys reputation accelerated when Barack Obama ran for president in 2008. His few years as a community organizer in Chicago seemed to mirror Alinskys career. Obama and Alinsky never had any contact, of course, as Alinsky died when Obama was not yet in his teens. And the organizations Obama worked for were not those founded by Alinsky. In the 2012 campaign, the name of Alinsky surfaced again as an attack against President Obama as he ran for reelection. And in 2016, at the Republican National Convention, Dr. Ben Carson invoked Alinsky in a peculiar accusation against Hillary Clinton. Carson claimed that Rules For Radicals had been dedicated to Lucifer, which was not accurate. (The book was dedicated to Alinskys wife, Irene; Lucifer was mentioned in passing in a series of epigraphs pointing out historic traditions of protest.) The emergence of Alinskys reputation as essentially a smear tactic to use against political opponents has only given him great prominence, of course. HIs two instructional books, Reveille for Radicals and Rules For Radicals remain in print in paperback editions. Given his irreverent sense of humor, he would probably consider the attacks upon his name from the radical right to be a great compliment. And his legacy as someone who sought to shake up the system seems secure.

Monday, March 2, 2020

History and Evolution of the Smart Pill

History and Evolution of the Smart Pill The name of smart pill now refers to any pill that can deliver or control its delivery of medicine without the patient having to take action beyond the initial swallow. The phrase smart pill became popular after the computer controlled medical device was patented by Jerome Schentag and David DAndrea, and named one of the top inventions of 1992 by Popular Science magazine. However, now the name has become generic and many companies are using the name smart pill.   History of the Smart Pill Jerome Schentag, professor of pharmaceutic science at the University of Buffalo, invented the computer-controlled smart pill, which can be electronically tracked and instructed to deliver a drug to a predetermined location in the gastrointestinal tract. David DAndrea was the co-inventor. UB reporter Ellen Goldbaum describes the smart pill as a combination of microminiature electronics, mechanical and software engineering, and pharmaceutical sciences. This capsule represents a significant advance in medical technology, said DAndrea to UB reporters, With the Smart Pill, we have been able to miniaturize a complex electronic system and put it into a capsule about one inch long. Youre not just taking a pill, youre swallowing the instrument. David DAndrea is the president and chief executive officer of Gastrotarget, Inc. the manufacturers of the Smart Pill. Jerome Schentag is the companys vice president of research and development. DAndrea is also the director of Millard Fillmore Hospitals Engineering and Devices Laboratory.